Flora and Fauna

Chameleon in the Rwenzori Mountains. Image by Kombi Tours

The Convention on Biological Diversity ranks Uganda as one of the top ten countries in the world for biodiversity. The Albertine Rift, which runs along the west of the country, is particularly known for the large number of endemic species it supports.

Uganda’s vegetation is heaviest in the south and typically becomes wooded savannah in central and northern Uganda. Where conditions are less favorable, dry acacia woodland, dotted with the occasional candelabra and euphorbia interspersed with grassland, occurs in the south. Similar components are found in the vegetation of the Rift Valley floors. The steppes and thickets of the northeast represent the driest regions of Uganda. In the Lake Victoria region and the western highlands, forest covering has been replaced by elephant grass and forest remnants because of human incursions. The medium-elevation forests contain a rich variety of species. The high-elevation forests of Mount Elgon and the Ruwenzori Range occur above 6,000 feet (1,800 metres); on their upper margins they give way, through transitional zones of mixed bamboo and tree heath, to high mountain moorland. Uganda’s 5,600 square miles (14,500 square km) of swamplands include both papyrus and seasonal grassy swamp.
Notable gardens include: Entebbe Botanical Gardens, Kibero Salt Gardens, Source of the Nile Gardens, Toro Botanical Gardens.